Have you wondered how electric scooters work? The motor is the principal component of the electric scooter that makes its wheels turn. You can find the electric motor under the deck of your scooter, which connects to the wheels by either a chain or a gear mechanism.
These days, there are electric scooters in which motors are attached directly to the wheel as well. This makes your electric scooter and its motor stronger and more durable.
The motor receives direct current from the battery with the help of cables. After receiving the current, the electric motor for scooters generates power. As a result, the wheels of your scooter rotate and propel you forward. So, the motor for an electric scooter plays perhaps the most vital role in how an electric scooter works.
As a rider and electric scooter owner, you should know about the motor and how it works, as you may be able to solve any problems that arise from it later down the line. That’s why I have prepared this article where I have elaborated on the electric motor for scooters in detail.
Power of Electric Motor
We discuss electric motors in terms of power. The power of a motor is the ratio of work consumed divided by time, usually expressed in W (W). 1 W is equivalent to one joule (J) per second.
The more power an electric motor has, the more work it does within the given time. A high-power motor can climb uphill, accelerate faster, and increase the scooter’s weight limit. High-powered motors are mostly found in premium scooters. They are expensive in comparison to other scooters.
Almost all electric scooters have one electric motor, but you may find two motors in some models, like the Unagi Model One E500 Electric Scooter. It has a dual motor of 250 W. This electric scooter can carry a maximum weight of 275 lb. The top speed is 20 mph, and the range covered by this scooter is 15 miles on a single charge. This electric scooter accelerates at a fast rate compared to other scooters that only have a single motor. However, with two motors, the battery discharges within a short time.
Torque of Electric Motor
Torque is the force exerted by the motor by which the wheels of your scooter rotate, and you move forward. Torque is usually expressed in Newton meters (N.m).
Usually, manufacturers don’t mention the torque of the motor. but you can easily calculate the torque of your motor with the following equation:
Power = torque × revolutions per second.
So, you can get torque by dividing the motor’s power by the revolutions per second of the motor.
You can calculate the motor efficiency by dividing the input power to your electric motor in your scooter by the output power.
Remember, no machine is 100% efficient. There is some natural charge loss in your electric motor. So, its efficiency will always be less than one.
What Size Electric Motor for Adults?
If I talk about the commuter or midrange commuter electric scooters, then the power of the motor in those electric scooters is 500 W or less than 500 W. For instance, the Razor 300 electric scooter has a motor power of 250 W. You can get a maximum speed of 15 mph because of the motor. The GOTRAX XR Elite electric scooter has a motor power of 300 W and produces a top speed of up to 15.5 mph.
When it comes to the Razor EcoSmart Metro electric scooter, the electric motor used here is 500 W and produces a maximum speed of 18 mph.
Electric Motor Scooter for Trails
With premium commuter electric scooters, the motor power is bound to be greater than 600 W. For example, if I talk about the EverCross electric scooter, it has a motor power of 800 W and has a top speed of 28 mph. The high motor power enables you to climb up steep roads and trails.
Now another example is the Uberscoot electric scooter which has a 1600 W motor. There won’t be a hill you cannot conquer with this electric scooter, thanks to its high-power motor.
Types of Motor
You will find two types of motors in an electric scooter. One is a brush DC motor, and another is a brushless DC motor. Let’s talk about the differences in detail, along with how they work.
#1. Brush DC Motor
Brush DC motors are simple DC motors. They use a brush to supply current to the windings of the rotor. This motor does not require a controller for the operation or varying speed.
In a brushed DC motor, you will find armature and stator. There are pairs of permanent magnets in the stator, and in the armature or rotor, you will find copper windings. These copper windings are attached to the commutator. In the commutator, you will see the brush on both sides. One brush connects to the battery’s positive terminal and the other to the battery’s negative terminal.
Whenever you supply the power from the battery to the motor, the brushes transfer the electric supply to the armature. Whenever the armature receives the current, it behaves like a magnet. The poles will start repelling the poles of a permanent magnet. We know very well that like poles in a magnet repel each other and opposite poles attract each other. Due to this phenomenon, the shaft of the motor rotates at a certain speed and torque. The exact speed and torque depend on the magnetic field.
Although they are inexpensive and ideal for any environmental conditions, they have certain limitations, such as noise and low efficiency. The brushes also wear out after several years.
#2. Brushless DC Motor
A brushless DC motor does not use a brush to deliver current to the rotor – although you probably guessed that just from the name! You need a hall effect sensor to start a brushless DC motor.
Now the question is: how does a brushless DC motor work? Well, it’s actually quite simple. You will find permanent magnets in the rotor. In the stator, you will find copper windings. These windings are arranged in the form of a star or delta.
Whenever you apply direct current to the motor, the coil becomes energized and becomes an electromagnet. The operation of a brushless DC motor lies on the force attraction between the permanent magnet and electromagnet, which results in rotating the rotor continuously. The sensor decides which coil to energize.
Suppose coil A becomes energized. Then it attracts with the opposite poles of the permanent magnet in the rotor. When coil A starts to move towards the pole of the rotor, coil A stops energizing, and coil B becomes energized. Now coil B will attract towards the opposite poles of the rotor. So in this way, the whole process is continually carried out, and the shaft rotates continuously with some speed and torque. As a result, your wheels propel the vehicle forward.
Advantages of Brushless Motor
- High efficiency
- High rotational speed
- It doesn’tNewton-meters produce any noise
- No need for maintenance
- Less wear and tear
As these brushless motors have many advantages, manufacturers prefer to use brushless DC motors in modern electric scooters.
The motor is the primary component of your electric scooter and responsible for its speed. The power produced by the motor propels the wheels of your scooter forward. So you need to ensure you keep your motor maintained from time to time.
Please comment or write any suggestions for this article below. I would love to read your thoughts on electric scooter motors.